Precipitation samples are gathered when sufficient precipitation occurs to allow for the collection of the minimum sample volume of approximately 50 mL. Samples are taken of monthly composites from Idaho Falls and CFA, and weekly from the EFS. Precipitation samples are analyzed for tritium. Storm events in the first quarter of 2017 produced sufficient precipitation to yield 15 samples.
Tritium was measured above the 3s values in 10 of the 15 samples. These results are listed in Table C-5 (Appendix C). Low levels of tritium exist in the environment at all times as a result of cosmic ray reactions with water molecules in the upper atmosphere and the remnants of fallout from nuclear weapons testing. When detected, tritium values have remained well within the historical range and the range measured across the country by the EPA Radnet program (EPA 2017). Most samples have values up to about 150 pCi/L, with occasional values ranging up to about 300-400 pCi/L. The maximum value in the first quarter was 192 pCi/L in a January CFA sample. The overall average for most sets of tritium data in almost all media is usually about 100 pCi/L, and for the first quarter precipitation it was right in line at 94 pCi/L.
Radiation has always been a part of the natural environment in the form of cosmic radiation, cosmogenic radionuclides [carbon-14 (14C), Beryllium-7 (7Be), and tritium (3H)], and naturally occurring radionuclides, such as potassium-40 (40K), and the thorium, uranium, and actinium series radionuclides which have very long half lives. Additionally, human-made radionuclides were distributed throughout the world beginning in the early 1940s. Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons from 1945 through 1980 and nuclear power plant accidents, such as the Chernobyl accident in the former Soviet Union during 1986, have resulted in fallout of detectable radionuclides around the world. This natural and manmade global fallout radioactivity is referred to as background radiation. MORE
The primary concern regarding radioactivity is the amount of energy deposited by particles or gamma radiation to the surrounding environment. It is possible that the energy from radiation may damage living tissue. When radiation interacts with the atoms of a given substance, it can alter the number of electrons associated with those atoms (usually removing orbital electrons). This is called ionization. MORE